How Coffee is Decaffeinated

First, let’s start with a really quick history. Coffee was first decaffeinated by Ludwig Roselius, a German coffee merchant, in 1905 after he received a coffee shipment that had gotten soaked during a storm at sea. He experimented with the brine-soaked coffee, and found out that benzene could be used as solvent to bond with the caffeine. Since caffeine is water-soluble at temperatures above 175°, he could boil the solution to separate the caffeine from the coffee. With his process, the coffee was decaffeinated, but it had lost much of its flavor.
For the record, Ludwig improved on his process and went on to sell his discovery under the Sanka brand name. Benzene is no longer used, as it is not considered safe for human consumption.
Today there are 3 commonly used methods available for removing caffeine from coffee, with dozens of variations of those methods. Two common variations are Direct and Indirect Method.
European or Traditional Process – Direct Method: The direct process involves softening the beans by steam first, then washing them for about 10 hours with either a methylene chloride or ethyl acetate solution to absorb the caffeine from the bean. The solution is discarded, the beans are re-steamed to remove any remaining solvent (methylene chloride boils away at 114°; ethyl acetate at 104°), then the beans are dried to their original moisture content.
European or Traditional Process – Indirect Method: Instead of being steamed, the coffee beans are soaked in very hot water, which extracts the caffeine along with many of the oils. This solution is then treated with either methylene chloride or ethyl acetate, which bonds with the caffeine. Then the solution is heated to the temperature at which the caffeine and either methylene chloride or ethyl acetate compounds evaporate. The oils are then reintroduced to the beans, and the beans are then dried.
About 80% of decaf coffees are processed by the Traditional, or European Process, and many serious coffee drinkers believe this method makes for the best-tasting coffee. Others worry about the chemicals involved. Methylene chloride is considered a superior solvent since it can evaporate at a lower temperature and leaves virtually no trace in the beans, but it is an environmental hazard to workers at decaffeination plants, and it is known to harm the ozone layer. Ethyl acetate can be extracted from various fruits and vegetables and so it is considered a “naturally-found” chemical, but most ethyl acetate used for decaffeinating is synthethically produced.
The Water or Swiss Water Process: Also known as the water process, this process uses no chemicals, but rather hot water, steam and osmosis to remove the caffeine from the coffee in two steps. In the first step, which is similar to the Traditional, Indirect Method, the beans are soaked in a hot water solution to remove the caffeine and the flavor oils. The beans used in this step are then discarded. The solution is run through activated charcoal filters to remove the caffeine, but leave the flavor oils. A new batch of beans is then soaked in the solution. According to the laws of osmosis, the caffeine leaves the beans to go to the uncaffeinated solution, but the flavor in both the solution and the beans is equal, so no flavor leaves the beans.
The beans are then dried and shipped to the roasters. The disadvantage is that the water processing removes more than just the caffeine. Some of the oils from the coffee bean are removed as well, making it less flavorful.
The Hypercritical Carbon Dioxide Method: In this method, which is not as popular as the other methods, the beans are soaked in a solution of liquid carbon dioxide to remove the caffeine. The get to a liquid state, the carbon dioxide must be highly pressurized (73 to 300 atmospheres), which makes the logistic cost of this method a bit higher than the other methods. After the caffeine is absorbed by the carbon dioxide, either the pressure is reduced and carbon dioxide is allowed to evaporate, or the solution is run through a carbon filter to remove the caffeine. Although more expensive, the advantage of the Carbon Dioxide Method is that since carbon dioxide is not a harmful gas, the method is not harmful to health or the environment.
Other Methods: Since there’s no consensus best-way to remove caffeine from coffee beans, there are still new methods being developed. One new method is the Triglyceride Process. In this method, green coffee beans are soaked in a solution or hot water and coffee to draw the caffeine to the surface of the beans. Then, the beans are transferred to another container and immersed in coffee flavor oils that were obtained from spent coffee grounds. The flavor oils contain triglycerides are a naturally-occurring combination of fatty acids and glycerol, and , after several hours at high temperatures, they are able to remove the caffeine from the beans while not affecting the flavor. Another new method, and possibly the future of decaffeinated coffee, is the cultivation of Naturally Caffeine-Free Coffee from trees that have recently discovered in that produce coffee with no caffeine. Depending on the variety of coffee, the caffeine content already varies significantly, from about 75 mg to 250 mg per 6 oz. cup. Arabica coffee varieties normally contain about half the caffeine of robusta varieties, and dark roast coffee usually has less caffeine than lighter roasts since the roasting process reduces caffeine content of the bean. An arabica bean containing a tenth as much caffeine as a normal bean has been found, so the possibility of developing or finding a bean with no caffeine is probably a matter of time.

Create a Professional Environment With Well Equipped Office Space

Are you looking for commercial office space for rent which is high on technology and smartly styled? While looking for commercial office space, there are few points that you should keep in your mind. Some of them are listed below:

Working environment ‘ Your office should be employed with very latest technology and provides a productive and restful work environment, nature-friendly themes run through the offbeat and inspiring office space, productivity and boosting efficiency. You should consider every detail like paint color, type of wood and other quality materials in the interiors to ensure a workspace not only visually beautiful but very efficient.

Security ‘ You should be well aware about the security of the office and security system should have following features:
‘ Well-lit entrances from parking lot, lobbies and public areas
‘ Brilliant disaster management standards
‘ Each and every floor and cabin should be equipped with security doors
‘ Continuous monitoring by security cameras
‘ Access control applied both floor-wise and section wise for safe movement around premises.

Technical Infrastructure ‘ It is advisable, if you select an office centre with hi-tech amenities. There are lots of office business centre providers that provide space with IT network design, implementation and management, hi-tech server room equipped with full back up support and adequate rack space, multiple ISPs, and also concern about future expansion to obviate chances of discontinuity in services.

Professional style and design ‘ The design and style of lots of business centres offers the look and feel of a corporate office. While searching for office space, don’t forget to checkout workspaces design and layout. You will find wide array of workspace designs to select from like individual cabins, open floor plans, departmental rooms, and exclusive section.

You can enjoy the convenience and an impressionable business location by renting an office business center. Providing excellent customer service along with building a great image with help your business to grow and become successful.

Incube has redefined the concept of office business center service with its technologically advanced and smartly styled workspace solutions. If you are looking for world class commercial office space for rent in India then consider Incube for your commercial office space for lease requirement.

Solar Energy Versus Fossil Fuel Generator

In the present day world, the internal combustion engines, and in turn, vehicles that use those engines are facing a crisis. This is chiefly due to the amount of fossil fuel going down, and the rapid hike in oil prices. In this scenario, it is indeed advantageous to make use of solar power. Experiments with solar power based vehicles are on, and the markets have already seen the presence of hybrid cars. According to experts, fossil fuel driven cars would be effectively replaced entirely by solar power driven vehicles, that too within the foreseeable future. The latter would also prevent the release of the polluting carbon monoxide gas. That would definitely ensure a cleaner, healthier atmosphere.

Solar power is advantageous, since the supply of raw material (i.e. sunlight) is abundant and renewable, and the solar energy stations can be set up independently as well. Other accessories of the system are also freely available. Solar power stations function noiselessly too – much to the convenience of users. These facilities, hence, make solar energy extremely popular for various purposes. The solar energy systems can be installed at all parts of the world as well. Solar power packages often come complete with battery banks, converters and control panels. Controllers are used to convert modules of power from solar panels to usage of battery. These systems, with their tough trailers, are often used by geologists, when they move in lands, hitherto unexplored, in search of oil and minerals.

Before actually setting up solar power systems, training manual needs to be consulted regarding the proper manner of installing such systems. The place to acquire batteries, the place where you can get these batteries for free, and the ideal place to set up such a system are all discussed in the manual. All possible safety related queries as well as the wiring systems need to be explained in detail. Once users have these data, they can easily set up effective solar energy systems in their homes.

Solar energy is, by nature, environmentally viable and non-polluting, and often considered to be the best among such energy sources. In particular, the eco-friendly nature of this source is expected to come to the fore in the future. The sun provides heat and light during the day; in addition, electricity can also be made available during the night, provided the solar power system is grid-tied, or has a battery-back. There are other benefits of solar power systems as well.

The cost of photovoltaic cells is also on its way down. This would help to extend the usage of solar energy to areas which were using other conventional energy sources thus far, and in newer forms too. The advantages of solar energy are also becoming evident over time. Clean, toxin-free environment can be guaranteed too, since internal combustion engines would soon be replaced by solar power systems. Thus, solar energy systems are fast emerging as the most important source of mainstream power.

Solar energy is derived from the rays of the sun, as is evident from its name itself. Solar energy has numerous benefits for users. However, until recent years, this source of energy could be used only during the day. Presently though, the current technology enables individuals to effectively store and use solar power, even during the night.